Worldwide, approximately 15 million people per year suffer from stroke. With about 5 million deaths, stroke is the second most common cause of death and a major cause of long-term disability. It is estimated that about 25% of people older than 85 years will develop stroke. Cannabis sativa and derived cannabinoids have been used for recreational and medical purposes for many centuries. However, due to the legal status in the past, research faced restrictions, and cannabis use was stigmatized for potential negative impacts on health. With the changes in legal status in many countries of the world, cannabis and cannabis-derived substances such as cannabinoids and terpenes have gained more interest in medical research. Several medical effects of cannabis have been scientifically proven, and potential risks identified. In the context of stroke, the role of cannabis is controversial. The negative impact of cannabis use on stroke has been reported through case reports and population-based studies. However, potential beneficial effects of specific cannabinoids are described in animal studies under certain conditions. In this narrative review, the existing body of evidence regarding the negative and positive impacts of cannabis use prior to stroke will be critically appraised.